Hallo allemaal, The subject already revealed the good news: I succeeded in replacing the original 6502 of an VIC-20 with an 65816. Most of you know that I used a modified card to replace the 6502 of a PET/CBM with a 65816 but that the VIC-20 did not accept this card ie. the screen remained blank. I always thought that it was a timing problem. Last wednesday I constructed a little gadget which is meant to replace this "big" card. Yesterday I decided to have another go by using my scope to see how the signals look when using a 6502 and when using a 6502. Instead the old card I used my new toy and suprise suprise: a screen appeared. So my conclusion was that there was a significant difference between the card and my new gadget. I found out that my assumption of a "timingproblem" was right but not in the way I had in mind. I could use the card with an 6502 or an 65816. But this meant that I wasn't able to supply a CLK1 signal when using a 65816. But the PETs and CBMs don't use this signal so no problem here. I thought that the VIC-20 didn't use this signal either (see the schematic). Yesterday I found out that the 'small board' VIC-20 does use CLK1. And my little gadget does supply a CLK1 so ..... How to make a 65816-module yourself? You only need 2 IC-sockets, one 74F04, three 10K-resistors,some non- flexible wire and a 65816 of course. One of the sockets has to be of the type with the rocket-shape pins (R- socket). For the Dutch guys: "gedraaide voetjes". The other one can be of the type with the two V-shaped metal tongues which grep the pin of the IC (V-socket). The pins of this socket are as thick as the pins of an IC. It also can be of R-type as well but the intention is to use this socket to replace the original 6502 and its rather thick pins could stress the socket the 6502 was placed in. If you have to desolder the 6502, then there is no problem. An advantage of using two R-types is that they are more easy to solder on top of each other in a later stadium of the project. - cut pin 2, 8, 10 and 12 of the 74F04. - cut pin 3 to 7 as well but not too short, leave some 3 mm free. - Cut pin 1, 3, 5, 7, 35, 36, 38 and 39 of the R-socket. - Lay the the R-socket on its back and lay the 74F04 on its back between the pins of the socket so that pin 14 of the 04 is near pin 8 of the socket and pin 7 of the 74F04 near pin 40 of the socket. Place the 74F04 with its pins 8/14 close to pins of the socket. You'll need the space on the other side later. - Connect pin 14 of the 74F04 with pin 8 of the socket. Do the same with 13 and 7, 11 and 5 and 9 and 3. - Bend pin 1 of the 74F04 to the middle of the IC. - Solder a wire to pin 7 of the 74F04 and connect it with pin 21 of the socket. Bend the wire so that it can be soldered to pin 1 of the 74F04 as well. - Use a wire to connect pin 3 of the 74F04 with pin 37 of the socket. - Solder a wire of 3 cm long in the HOLES of pin 1, 3, 7 and 39 of the SECOND socket. (The V-socket in my case) - First bend the wires flat on the socket. - Then bend the wire of pin 1 so that it pops up alongside pin 7 of the 74F04 if you place the first socket on top of the second. - Bend the wire of pin 3 of the V-socket so that it pops up between pin 4 and 5 of the 74F04. - Bend the wire of pin 39 of the V-socket so that it pops up between pin 6 of the 74F04 and the plastic carrier of the R-socket. (this why you needed the space mentioned above) - Bend the wire of pin 7 of the V-socket so that it pops alongside the wire going to pin 21 of the Rsocket. - Place the R-socket on top of the V-socket and solder the pins to each other. This can be difficult using a V-socket. You'll need a fine soldertip for this work and a lot of patience. - Solder the wires to the pins of the 74F04: 1 -> 7 3 -> 4 AND 5 (!) 39 -> 6 7 -> wire towards 21 - Solder a 10K resistor on the outside of the R-socket between pin 8 and pin3. - Solder a resistor to pin 35 and bend the other and around the top of the socket towards pin 8. This end will be to short so solder a piece of wire to this end and solder this wire to pin 8 as well. - Solder a resistor to pin 35 and connect the other end to the wire leading towards pin 8. - Place the the 65816 in the R-socket and you're ready to use it. Time needed: 2 hours. But this included a lot of thinking how How does it work? The main differences are: Pin 65816 6502 --- ------- -------- 1 VP GROUND 3 ABORT CLK1 5 ML NC 7 VPA SYNC 35 E NC 36 BE NC 38 M/X SO 39 VDA CLK2 The 65816 lacks the CLK1 and CLK2 clocksignals so we have to produce them ourself. That's where the 74F04 comes in place. ABORT, E and BE are inputs and need a pull-up resistor. The 65816 has no SYNC or equivalent but we have to supply this output with a level and IMHO the safest level is (L). AFAIK the only system using SYNC is the KIM-1. The 65816 also lacks the SO-input. The only systems I know of using the SO- input are some of the drives of C= like the 1541. Using the complete 16 MB range in a 30xx or 8032 IMHO it is quit easy to turn your 64K PET/CBM in a 16 MB monster. You only need a 138, 3-to-8 multiplexer, a 32, quad OR-gates, and a 573, 8-bit latch. The 573 is used to generate A16..A13 out of the databus using CLK1 as trigger. The 32 and 138 are used to determine when the range $000000 to $00FFFF is selected. The output of the 138 is used to enable the onboard 74LS154 which normally does the main multiplexing of the signals. Its enable-signals normally are wired to GND and only have to be connected to the 138. Groetjes, Ruud - This message was sent through the cbm-hackers mailing list. 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